Wireframes, Mockups, and Prototypes: Differences and Characteristics

30 January 2024
  • Design
  • User Experience
  • +2

Team Conflux

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30 January 2024
  • Design
  • User Experience
  • +2

During the UX design process, the team has the opportunity to choose and combine various tools based on the project’s stage and its peculiarities.


Among these, wireframes, mockups, and prototypes are visually similar tools that are often confused with each other. In this article, we will clarify and better outline the characteristics and functions of each.

UX Wireframe

What are wireframes?

Wireframes are very schematic visual representations of the application or web page being designed. They focus on the structure, showing which elements will be present, their arrangement, and the main functionalities of the interface.


In a digital wireframe, simple elements such as boxes, lines, and placeholder text are used to outline a visual hierarchy, layout, and interaction points of the user interface. The emphasis is not on aesthetics but on structure and functionality.

Why are wireframes important in UX/UI design?

Wireframes are typically used in the early stages of a UX project. The main purpose is to define the product’s skeleton and share design ideas within the team and with all other stakeholders, clients, and users.


Wireframes are important in UX/UI design because they help to:


  1. Plan the information architecture and functionalities. Wireframes allow the organization of content, functions, and user flow before creating the UI design.
  2. Evaluate usability and accessibility. Wireframes ensure that interface elements are arranged logically and intuitively for users, even in the early stages of the project.
  3. Optimize the layout. Wireframes help determine the optimal placement of elements in the interface and create more accurate designs.
  4. Facilitate collaboration within the workgroup. Wireframes provide a shared vision of the project that the team can always refer to.
  5. Gather feedback early on. Wireframes can be shared with the client to support collaborative design processes and can be tested with users, including crowd-testing techniques, to identify any issues in the early stages of the project.
  6. Save time and reduce modification costs. Making changes to wireframes requires fewer resources compared to making changes in a more advanced phase.

What are the types of wireframes?

A wireframe can be created with different levels of fidelity, depending on the purpose and design phase.


Low-fidelity wireframe: These are hand-drawn sketches on paper or simple digital versions that show the approximate arrangement of elements using geometric shapes such as boxes and lines, along with placeholder text. They are used to quickly explore different layout options and determine which elements should be present on the screens.


High-fidelity wireframe: These are more detailed representations that include elements closer to the final design, such as text fields, buttons, and icons, and are created using wireframing tools. They more precisely define the layout and interactions with the interface.

Low-fidelity wireframes are used in the early stages of the project to identify requirements and generate rough ideas. High-fidelity wireframes come into play later to refine the details and can be used for more in-depth usability testing.

UX Mockups

What are UX mockups?

UX mockups are static visual representations of a website or mobile apps. They are created based on wireframes developed in the previous project phase, to which graphic and stylistic elements of the user interface are added, such as colors, fonts, icons, and other visual and textual content.

Mockups are not interactive but provide a preview of how the final layout of the product will look.

What is the purpose of UX mockups?

The purpose of UX mockups is to visually represent how the final design will realistically appear. They are a crucial phase within the design process, useful for:


Defining the look and feel and validating the visual concept. Mockups showcase fonts, colors, images, and every other visual element of the interface. Clients and stakeholders can provide feedback, and assess, and approve the final appearance of the product.


Validating elements of the user interface. UI mockups highlight buttons, menus, icons, text fields, and other components of the user interface. The proposed solutions must take into account not only the client’s brand style but also usability and other critical elements for the user experience.

Guiding development. UX mockups provide clear visual specifications for the code implementation of the interface by developers.

What are the benefits of using UX mockups in interface design?

Through mockups, designers can experiment with different visual designs and make modifications based on feedback from stakeholders before the product is developed.

The use of mockups is “time and money-saving”: it helps save resources as changes to the mockup are simpler and faster compared to subsequent changes to the finished product.


Furthermore, sharing a preview of the final product with clients and users and seeking their feedback to improve the design has a positive impact on the relationship with these stakeholders. They will feel more involved and confident in the UX design process, promoting collaborative design.

The relationship between designers and developers also benefits from the use of mockups. They reduce misunderstandings between design team and developer team by providing a clear and comprehensive visual guide on how the final product should look once developed.

UX Prototypes

What are UX prototypes?

Prototypes are dynamic representations of a website or application, focusing on functionality and interactions. They demonstrate the behavior, transitions, animations, and possible interactions of an interface.

They are functional simulations that allow users to interact with the product and navigate through flows. While interactive, they may not necessarily be complete or fully functional but simulate parts of the interface intended for usability testing or collecting user feedback.

What is the purpose of UX prototypes?

Through the simulation of interface functionalities and features, prototypes are useful for:


  1. Evaluating usability and user flow. Prototypes allow observation of user behavior while interacting with the interface simulation, identifying any cognitive biases or issues in navigation flows.
  2. Testing interactions and animations. Prototypes enable testing transitions between screens and expected effects.
  3. Collecting feedback. Users can interact with the prototype and provide opinions on strengths and weaknesses, allowing for design improvement or providing insights for new solutions.


Improving communication among involved parties: Being able to effectively experience flows and interactions in the prototype allows for an immediate and clearer understanding of how the product will be.


These are just a few examples of how these types of artificial intelligence can impact the work of UX designers. Learning to incorporate these powerful tools into one’s work and refining the instructions given to them can open doors to new possibilities of use.

Types of Prototyping: Low/High Fidelity

Prototypes are used at various stages throughout the UX design process. Depending on the stage of progress and objectives, a more or less faithful prototyping approach to the final product will be chosen.


Low-fidelity prototyping involves creating simple and quick prototypes using tools such as paper and pen, stencils, or prototyping tools. Its purpose is to test basic functionalities and the navigation flow of an interface.

Low-fidelity prototypes allow for validating the overall idea and interaction concept with minimal resource commitment, or for brainstorming in the early stages of a project.


High-fidelity prototyping involves creating detailed and realistic prototypes using specific prototyping tools. Its purpose is to test the visual appearance, interactions, and performance of an interface.

High-fidelity prototypes integrate real UI elements, such as functioning buttons and menus, enabling in-depth testing of the final user experience. They are used in the advanced stages of the project.

Wireframes, Mockups, or Prototypes: The Main Differences

Wireframes, mockups, and prototypes are complementary tools used at different stages in the UX design process. They differ in purpose and level of detail compared to the final product.


Level of detail compared to the final product:

  • Wireframes are visually simpler and schematic, limited to basic graphic elements like boxes, lines, and placeholder text;
  • Mockups are the most comprehensive and realistic, presenting combinations of colors, fonts, and images resembling the final product;
  • Prototypes are the most dynamic and interactive, simulating the final product and showcasing functionalities and behaviors.


Stage of the design process where they are generally used:

  • Wireframes are used in the initial phase to define the project;
  • Mockups are used in the middle phase for visualizing the design;
  • Prototypes are used in the final phase for product validation.


The main objective of each tool:

  • Wireframes are used to define the structure and functionalities of an interface;
  • Mockups are used to present the visual appearance of an interface;
  • Prototypes are used to simulate the functioning of an interface.


Feature Wireframe Mockup Prototype
Level of detail Variable (low/medium) Medium Variable (low/high)
Purpose Define structure Define visual aspect Interactivity test
Interactivity Missing Missing Present
Visual aspect Minimum Complete Partial
Tools Paper and pen, wireframing tools Graphic design software Prototyping tool


The best tools for designing wireframes, mockups, and prototypes

There are many tools available for creating wireframes, mockups, and prototypes, each with different features and functionalities. The choice depends on the specific project requirements, and goals, and partly on the team’s preferences.

Below, we have selected some of the best and most popular digital tools.


Figma: An online tool that allows real-time collaborative creation of wireframes, mockups, and prototypes. It offers a wide range of features, including components, styles, libraries, plugins, and animations.

Sketch: A Mac-only tool for creating high-fidelity wireframes, mockups, and prototypes. It provides great flexibility and customization through symbols, styles, plugins, and integrations with other tools.

Balsamiq: Available for Windows, Mac, and the web, Balsamiq allows quick and intuitive creation of low-fidelity wireframes. It offers a simple drag-and-drop interface with predefined elements.

Adobe XD: Enables the creation of animated and high-performance prototypes. It includes real-time collaboration features.

InVision: A popular web tool that transforms static mockups into interactive prototypes.

Marvel: Easy to use, Marvel allows the creation of high-performance prototypes starting from graphic mockups.


To choose which tool to use among wireframe, mockup, or prototype, a UX team will consider various factors: the stage of progress in the work, project specifics, and specific needs that arise during the design process. Each tool has its own characteristics, making it more suitable for certain purposes than others and addressing specific design needs.

If you are looking for a partner to design your digital product or service, we at Conflux are at your disposal to support you to the fullest, thanks to the cross-industry UX expertise and knowledge of our researchers and UX designers. Contact us, and we will help you create the product that best suits you and your customers.

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